چارچوب عوامل موفقیت پیاده‌سازی نوآوری باز با استفاده از رویکرد فراترکیب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت‌علمی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه حضرت معصومه (س)، قم.

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکدة مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه پردیس فارابی تهران، قم.

3 کارشناسی ارشد کارآفرینی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه حضرت معصومه (س)، قم.

چکیده

نوآوری باز با تأکید بر از­بین­بردن مرزهای سازمان و دخیل­کردن عوامل ارزش‌آفرین خارج از سازمان، احتمال موفقیت و توسعه سازمانی را بالا برده و ریسک ناشی از خطرات سرمایه‌گذاری را کاهش می‌دهد. علی‌رغم پژوهش‌های فراوان پیرامون نوآوری باز، ارائه چارچوبی جامع و یکپارچه از ابعاد پیاده‌سازی موفق نوآوری باز مغفول باقی مانده و هریک از مطالعات پیشین بر جنبه‌ای متفاوت از پیاده‌سازی نوآوری باز تمرکز یافته‌اند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، ارائه یک چارچوب کل‌نگر و جامع از عوامل موفقیت پیاده‌سازی نوآوری باز می‌باشد و بدین‌منظور در گام اول بررسی نظام‌مند 46 مقاله از میان 200 مقاله موجود در پیشینه حوزه نوآوری بازار با تکیه بر روش فراترکیب در دستورکار قرار گرفته است و در گام دوم، عوامل شناسایی‌شده با رویکرد مدل‌سازی ساختاری تفسیری اولویت­گذاری شده­اند. بر­اساس یافته‌های پژوهش، ابعاد موفقیت پیاده‌سازی نوآوری باز شامل مشارکت داخلی و خارجی، مدیریت دانش، قابلیت فناوری اطلاعات، نیروی­انسانی، عوامل راهبردی، پشتیبانی و زیرساخت سازمانی می‌باشد و از میان عوامل مذکور، نیروی­انسانی، پشتیبانی و زیرساخت سازمانی به­عنوان تأثیرگذارترین ابعاد و مشارکت داخلی و خارجی به­عنوان تأثیرپذیرترین ابعاد شناسایی شدند. پژوهش حاضر با شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر پیاده‌سازی نوآوری باز به توسعه نظریه و ایجاد بینش جدیدی در این حوزه پرداخته است و چارچوب پیشنهادی پژوهش قابلیت کاربرد در سازمان‎ها و صنایع مختلف را دارا می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Framework of the Success Factors of Open Innovation Implementation Using Meta-Synthesis Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mona Jami Pour 1
  • Seyed Mohammadbagher Jafari 2
  • Nadia Najafi 3
1 Faculty Member, Department of Management, Hazrat-e Ma’soumeh University (HMU), Qom, Iran.
2 Faculty Member, Faculty of Management and Accounting, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran.
3 MSc in Entreprenuership, Department of Management, Hazrate Masoumeh University (HMU), Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Open innovation, by emphasizing the removal of organizational boundaries and the involvement of value-creating factors outside the organization, increases the probability of success and organizational development and reduces the investment risks. Despite extensive research on open innovation, defining a comprehensive and integrated framework for successful implementation of open innovation has been neglected and the previous studies have focused on different aspects of the subject. The purpose of this study is to identify a holistic and comprehensive framework for the success factors of open innovation implementation and to do this, in the first phase, 46 papers (from among 200) in the literature of open innovation were studied using the meta-synthesis method. In the second phase, the identified factors have been prioritized by an interpretive structural modeling approach. On the basis of the research findings, the success factors of open innovation implementation include internal and external collaboration, knowledge management, IT capability, human resources, strategic factors, logistics and organizational infrastructure. The results show that human resources, support and organizational infrastructure are among the most influential dimensions and the internal and external collaboration are considered as the most affected dimensions. The present study by identifying the factors affecting the implementation of open innovation tries to develop the theory and create new insights in this area and the proposed research framework can be used in various organizations and industries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Innovation
  • Open Innovation
  • success factors
  • Meta-synthesisو Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM)
-          Abulrub, A. H. G., & Lee, J. (2012). Open innovation management: Challenges and prospects. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 41, 130-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.04.017
-          Ahn, J. M., Minshall, T., & Mortara, L. (2015). Open innovation: A new classification and its impact on firm performance in innovative SMEs. Journal of Innovation Management, 3(2), 33-54. https://doi.org/10.24840/2183-0606_003.002_0006
-          Ahn, J. M., Minshall, T., & Mortara, L. (2017). Understanding the human side of openness: The fit between open innovation modes and CEO characteristics. R&D Management, 47(5), 727-740. https://doi.org/10.1111/radm.12264
-          Al-Belushi, K. I., Stead, S. M., Gray, T., & Burgess, J. G. (2018). Measurement of open innovation in the marine biotechnology sector in Oman. Marine Policy, 98, 164-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2018.03.004
-          Altmann, P., & Li, J. (2011). The novelty of open innovation. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:471149/FULLTEXT01.pdf
-          Bianchi, M., Campodall'Orto, S., Frattini, F., & Vercesi, P. (2010). Enabling open innovation in small‐and medium‐sized enterprises: How to find alternative applications for your technologies. R&D Management, 40(4), 414-431. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9310.2010.00613.x
-          Bigliardi, B., Ivo Dormio, A., & Galati, F. (2012). The adoption of open innovation within the telecommunication industry. European Journal of Innovation Management, 15(1), 27-54. https://doi.org/10.1108/14601061211192825
-          Bogers, M., Chesbrough, H., & Moedas, C. (2018). Open innovation: Research, practices, and policies. California Management Review, 60(2), 5-16. https://doi.org/10.1177/0008125617745086
-          Brockman, P., Khurana, I. K., & Zhong, R. I. (2018). Societal trust and open innovation. Research Policy, 47(10), 2048-2065. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2018.07.010
-          Carvalho, E. G., & Sugano, J. Y. (2017). Towards a theory regarding open innovation and entrepreneurship: A meta-synthesis from qualitative studies in small and medium enterprises and start-ups. Sistemas & Gestao, 12(1), 14-24. https://doi.org/10.20985/1980-5160.2017.v12n1.931
-          Catalano, A. (2013). Patterns of graduate students’ information seeking behavior: A meta-synthesis of the literature. Journal of Documentation, 69(2), 243-274. https://doi.org/10.1108/00220411311300066
-          Chae, H. C., Koh, C. E., & Park, K. O. (2018). Information technology capability and firm performance: Role of industry. Information & Management, 55(5), 525-546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2017.10.001
-          Cheng, C. C., & Huizingh, E. K. (2014). When is open innovation beneficial? The role of strategic orientation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(6), 1235-1253. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpim.12148
-          Cheng, C. C., Yang, C., & Sheu, C. (2016). Effects of open innovation and knowledge-based dynamic capabilities on radical innovation: An empirical study. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 41, 79-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jengtecman.2016.07.002
-          Chesbrough, H. (2006). Open innovation: A new paradigm for understanding industrial innovation. In Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W., & West, J. (Eds.), Open innovation: Researching a new paradigm (pp. 1-19). Oxford University Press on Demand. http://emotools.com/static/upload/files/Openinnovationparadigm.pdf
-          Chiaroni, D., Chiesa, V., & Frattini, F. (2011). The Open Innovation Journey: How firms dynamically implement the emerging innovation management paradigm. Technovation, 31(1), 34-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2009.08.007
-          Clarke, I., & Ramirez, M. (2014). Intermediaries and capability building in ‘emerging’clusters. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 32(4), 714-730. https://doi.org/10.1068/c1262r
-          Conrado, D. J., Karlsson, M. O., Romero, K., Sarr, C., & Wilkins, J. J. (2017). Open innovation: Towards sharing of data, models and workflows. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 109, S65-S71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2017.06.035
-          Cui, T., Ye, H. J., Teo, H. H., & Li, J. (2015). Information technology and open innovation: A strategic alignment perspective. Information & Management, 52(3), 348-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2014.12.005
-          Dahlander, L., & Gann, D. M. (2010). How open is innovation?. Research policy, 39(6), 699-709. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2010.01.013
-          de Oliveira, L. S., Echeveste, M. E. S., Cortimiglia, M. N., & Gonçalves, C. G. C. (2017). Analysis of determinants for Open Innovation implementation in Regional Innovation Systems. RAI Revista de Administração e Inovação, 14(2), 119-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rai.2017.03.006
-          Donate, M. J., & de Pablo, J. D. S. (2015). The role of knowledge-oriented leadership in knowledge management practices and innovation. Journal of business research, 68(2), 360-370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.06.022
-          Dufour, J., & Son, P. E. (2015). Open innovation in SMEs–towards formalization of openness. Journal of Innovation Management, 3(3), 90-117. https://doi.org/10.24840/2183-0606_003.003_0008
-          Durst, S., & Ståhle, P. (2013). Success factors of open innovation - A literature review. International Journal of Business Research and Management, 4(4), 111-131. http://www.cscjournals.org/manuscript/Journals/IJBRM/Volume4/Issue4/IJBRM-154.pdf
-          Enkel, E., & Gassmann, O. (2005). Open Innovation Forschung Forschungsfragen und erste Erkenntnisse. In M. Weissenberger-Eib (Ed.), Gestaltung von Innovationssystemen (pp. 289-308). https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/17076/1/Open%20Innovation%20Forschung.pdf
-          Ettlinger, N. (2017). Open innovation and its discontents. Geoforum, 80, 61-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.01.011
-          Ferraris, A., Santoro, G., & Papa, A. (2018). The cities of the future: Hybrid alliances for open innovation projects. Futures, 103, 51-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2018.03.012
-          Galati, F., Bigliardi, B., & Petroni, A. (2016). Open innovation in food firms: Implementation strategies, drivers and enabling factors. International Journal of Innovation Management, 20(03), 1650042. https://doi.org/10.1142/s1363919616500420
-          Giannopoulou, E., Yström, A., Ollila, S., Fredberg, T., & Elmquist, M. (2010). Implications of openness: A study into (all) the growing literature on open innovation. Journal of technology management & innovation, 5(3), 162-180. https://doi.org/10.4067/s0718-27242010000300012
-          Gloet, M., & Samson, D. (2020). Knowledge management and systematic innovation capability. In Disruptive technology: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications (pp. 1198-1218). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-9273-0.ch059
-          Greco, M., Grimaldi, M., & Cricelli, L. (2016). An analysis of the open innovation effect on firm performance. European Management Journal, 34(5), 501-516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2016.02.008
-          Hagedoorn, J., & Zobel, A. K. (2015). The role of contracts and intellectual property rights in open innovation. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 27(9), 1050-1067. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537325.2015.1056134
-          Hannigan, T. R., Seidel, V. P., & Yakis-Douglas, B. (2018). Product innovation rumors as forms of open innovation. Research Policy, 47(5), 953-964. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2018.02.018
-          Hossain, M. (2015). A review of literature on open innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 5(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40497-015-0022-y
-          Hossain, M., & Kauranen, I. (2016). Open innovation in SMEs: A systematic literature review. Journal of Strategy and management, 9(1), 58-73. https://doi.org/10.1108/jsma-08-2014-0072
-          Hossain, M., Islam, K. Z., Sayeed, M. A., & Kauranen, I. (2016). A comprehensive review of open innovation literature. Journal of Science & Technology Policy Management, 7(1), 2-25. https://doi.org/10.1108/jstpm-02-2015-0009
-          Howells, J. (2006). Intermediation and the role of intermediaries in innovation. Research policy, 35(5), 715-728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2006.03.005
-          Huggins, R., Prokop, D., & Thompson, P. (2020). Universities and open innovation: The determinants of network centrality. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 45(3), 718-757. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-019-09720-5
-          Ibrahimov, B. (2018). Open Innovation and application to Petroleum Industry. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 51(30), 697-702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.11.212
-          Jacobfeuerborn, B. (2014). An Informational Model of Open Innovation. In Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform: From Research to Implementation (pp. 15-24). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04714-0_2
-          Jugend, D., Jabbour, C. J. C., Scaliza, J. A. A., Rocha, R. S., Junior, J. A. G., Latan, H., & Salgado, M. H. (2018). Relationships among open innovation, innovative performance, government support and firm size: Comparing Brazilian firms embracing different levels of radicalism in innovation. Technovation, 74-75, 54-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2018.02.004
-          Kawai, H. (2017). Open innovation university-industry collaboration: Student idea contests and exit strategy in Japan. JFMRA, 1(2), 31. http://www.jfmra.org/doc/jjm_vol01_no2.pdf#page=37
-          Kratzer, J., Meissner, D., & Roud, V. (2017). Open innovation and company culture: Internal openness makes the difference. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 119, 128-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.03.022
-          Leung, L. (2015). Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 4(3), 324. https://doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.161306
-          Li, Y., Zhou, N., & Si, Y. (2010). Exploratory innovation, exploitative innovation, and performance: Influence of business strategies and environment. Nankai Business Review International, 1(3), 297-316. https://doi.org/10.1108/20408741011069223
-          Lichtenthaler, U., & Ernst, H. (2009). Opening up the innovation process: The role of technology aggressiveness. R&D Management, 39(1), 38-54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9310.2008.00522.x
-          Lindegaard, S. (2012). Social media for corporate innovators & entrepreneurs: Add power to your innovation efforts. Tinno. http://www.tinno.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Social-Media-for-Corporate-Innovators-and-Entrepreneurs.pdf
-          Lockhart, D. E. (2018). Open innovation: Accelerating innovative products and services through the department of defense acquisition management system [Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland]. https://search.proquest.com/openview/4a31a7dc03c293760be1a35a1403433c/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y
-          Lopes, A. P. V. B. V., & de Carvalho, M. M. (2018). Evolution of the open innovation paradigm: Towards a contingent conceptual model. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 132, 284-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.02.014
-          Lukka, K., & Modell, S. (2010). Validation in interpretive management accounting research. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 35(4), 462-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2009.10.004
-          MacPhail, C., Khoza, N., Abler, L., & Ranganathan, M. (2016). Process guidelines for establishing intercoder reliability in qualitative studies. Qualitative Research, 16(2), 198-212. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794115577012
-          Manteghi, M., & Hasan Abadi, P. (2016). The requirements to shift from close innovation into open innovation [In Persian]. Roshd-e-Fanavari, Journal of Science and Technology Parks & Incubators, 12(2), 26-34. https://doi.org/10.7508/jstpi.2016.02.004
-          Michelino, F., Caputo, M., Cammarano, A., & Lamberti, E. (2014). Inbound and outbound open innovation: organization and performances. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 9(3), 65-82. https://doi.org/10.4067/s0718-27242014000300005
-          Moretti, F., & Biancardi, D. (2020). Inbound open innovation and firm performance. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 5(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2018.03.001
-          Mortara, L., & Minshall, T. (2011). How do large multinational companies implement open innovation?. Technovation, 31(10-11), 586-597.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2011.05.002
-          Mortara, L., Napp, J. J., Slacik, I., & Minshall, T. (2009). How to implement open innovation: Lessons from studying large multinational companies. University of Cambridge. http://www-cikc.eng.cam.ac.uk/wp-content/docs/COIN.pdf
-          Natalicchio, A., Ardito, L., Savino, T., & Albino, V. (2017). Managing knowledge assets for open innovation: A systematic literature review. Journal of Knowledge Management, 21(6), 1362-1383. https://doi.org/10.1108/jkm-11-2016-0516
-          Nilsson, N., & Minssen, T. (2018). Unlocking the full potential of open innovation in the life sciences through a classification system. Drug Discovery Today, 23(4), 771-775. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2018.01.002
-          Öberg, C., & Öberg, C., & Alexander, A. T. (2018). The openness of open innovation in ecosystems–Integrating innovation and management literature on knowledge linkages. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 4(4), 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2017.10.005
-          Ojasalo, J., & Kauppinen, H. (2016). Collaborative innovation with external actors: an empirical study on open innovation platforms in smart cities. Technology Innovation Management Review, 6(12), 49-60. https://doi.org/10.22215/timreview1041
-          Onişor, L. F. (2015). Marketing techniques enhance closed innovation to form open innovation. Procedia Economics and Finance, 32, 298-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2212-5671(15)01395-7
-          Padilha, C. K., & Gomes, G. (2016). Innovation culture and performance in innovation of products and processes: A study in companies of textile industry. RAI Revista de Administração e Inovação, 13(4), 285-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rai.2016.09.004
-          Perkmann, M., & Walsh, K. (2007). University–industry relationships and open innovation: Towards a research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 9(4), 259-280. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2007.00225.x
-          Popa, S., Soto-Acosta, P., & Martinez-Conesa, I. (2017). Antecedents, moderators, and outcomes of innovation climate and open innovation: An empirical study in SMEs. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 118, 134-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.02.014
-          Ramezanpour Nargesi, G., & Davari, A., Afrasiabi, R., & Zargaran Yazd, B. (2014). The effect of internal and external factors on open innovation [In Persian]. Journal of Technology Development Management, 2(2), 29-46. https://doi.org/10.22104/jtdm.2015.135
-          Ramírez-Montoya, M. S., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2018). Co-creation and open innovation: Systematic literature review. Comunicar Media Education Research Journal, 26(1). https://doi.org/10.3916/c54-2018-01
-          Randhawa, K., Wilden, R., & Hohberger, J. (2016). A bibliometric review of open innovation: Setting a research agenda. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 33(6), 750-772. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpim.12312
-          Rauter, R., Globocnik, D., Perl-Vorbach, E., & Baumgartner, R. J. (2019). Open innovation and its effects on economic and sustainability innovation performance. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 4(4), 226-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2018.03.004
-          Rosa, A. C. M., Chimendes, V. C. G., & Amorim, G. F. (2020). Measuring open innovation practices in small companies at important Brazilian industrial centers. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 151, 119805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119805
-          Sabiölla, H., Kees, A., Manderscheid, J., Röglinger, M., & Rosemann, M. (2017). What does it take to implement open innovation? Towards an integrated capability framework. Business Process Management Journal, 23(1), 87-107. https://doi.org/10.1108/bpmj-03-2016-0066
-          Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J., (2007). Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research. Springer. Retrieved from https://www.springerpub.com/handbook-for-synthesizing-qualitative-research-9780826156945.html
-          Santoro, G., Vrontis, D., Thrassou, A., & Dezi, L. (2018). The Internet of things: Building a knowledge management system for open innovation and knowledge management capacity. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 136, 347-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.02.034
-          Shamah, R. A. E., & Elssawabi, S. M. (2015). Facing the open innovation gap: Measuring and building open innovation in supply chains. Journal of Modelling in Management, 10(1), 50-75. https://doi.org/10.1108/jm2-02-2013-0009
-          Sieg, J. H., Wallin, M. W., & Von Krogh, G. (2010). Managerial challenges in open innovation: A study of innovation intermediation in the chemical industry. R&D Management, 40(3), 281-291. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9310.2010.00596.x
-          Su, J., Yang, Y., & Zhang, X. (2019). Knowledge transfer efficiency measurement with application for open innovation networks. International Journal of Technology Management, 81(1-2), 118-142. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTM.2019.101290
-          Szutowski, D. (2018). Market reaction to open innovation announcements. European Journal of Innovation Management, 21(1), 142-156. https://doi.org/10.1108/ejim-04-2017-0048
-          Teece, D. J. (2010). Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 172-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.003
-          Terhorst, A., Lusher, D., Bolton, D., Elsum, I., & Wang, P. (2018). Tacit knowledge sharing in open innovation projects. Project Management Journal, 49(4), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F8756972818781628
-          Usman, M., Roijakkers, N., Vanhaverbeke, W., & Frattini, F. (2018). A systematic review of the literature on open innovation in SMEs. Researching Open Innovation in SMEs. 3-35. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789813230972_0001
-          Van de Vrande, V., De Jong, J. P., Vanhaverbeke, W., & De Rochemont, M. (2009). Open innovation in SMEs: Trends, motives and management challenges. Technovation, 29(6-7), 423-437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2008.10.001
-          Van de Vrande, V., Vanhaverbeke, W., & Gassmann, O. (2010). Broadening the scope of open innovation: past research, current state and future directions. International Journal of Technology Management, 52(3/4), 221-235. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijtm.2010.035974
-          Van Lancker, J., Wauters, E., & Van Huylenbroeck, G. (2019). Open innovation in public research institutes—Success and influencing factors. International Journal of Innovation Management, 23(07), 1950064. https://doi.org/10.1142/s1363919619500646
-          Vanhaverbeke, W., & Chesbrough, H. (2014). A classification of open innovation and open business models. New Frontiers in Open Innovation, 6, 50-68. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199682461.003.0003
-          West, J., & Bogers, M. (2014). Leveraging external sources of innovation: A review of research on open innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(4), 814-831. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpim.12125
-          Won Park, Y., Amano, T., & Moon, G. (2012). Benchmarking open and cluster innovation: Case of Korea. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 19(4/5), 517-531. https://doi.org/10.1108/14635771211257981
-          Yoon, B., Shin, J., & Lee, S. (2016). Open innovation projects in SMEs as an engine for sustainable growth. Sustainability, 8(2), 146. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8020146
-          Zhu, X., Xiao, Z., Dong, M. C., & Gu, J. (2019). The fit between firms’ open innovation and business model for new product development speed: A contingent perspective. Technovation, 86-87, 75-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2019.05.005
-          Zott, C., & Amit, R. (2010). Business model design: An activity system perspective. Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 216-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.004