A new framework for measurement and implementation of open innovation: a context-based approach

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Allameh Tabatabaii university

2 board member

3 null

4 Department of Industrial Management, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran


The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic decision framework to support decision makers in choosing or constructing the most appropriate practices for OI adoption. This work brings OI into the realm of practices by moving the focus from outcome to the practices -, i.e. from OI as a new artifact to the act of innovating.
So this paper, after a deep review of OI research literature, seeks to provide a sophisticated framework for decisions on the adoption of OI. The framework was implemented in three phases in a large Iranian company active in the food packaging and printing industry. In the first step, two categories of variables were chosen for measuring the status of OI practices, namely contextual factors and descriptor variables. In the second and third steps, using the multi-criteria decision-making techniques, the current and then the desirable status of OI practices are identified.
The results of the research show that there is a deep contradiction between the current and the desired status of the practices adopted in the “retention stage” in the company under study. This gap is less in other the stages of innovation process, namely “exploration” and “exploitation” stages.


  • اکبری، مرتضی.، ذره‌پرور شجاع، الهام.، پاداش زیوه، حمید.، علیزاده مقدم، شکوه السادات.، 1397. تأثیر نوآوری باز وارد شونده و خارج شونده بر عملکرد نوآوری در شرکت‌های فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات. فصلنامه توسعه مدیریت فناوری. (6).
  • داودی، نازی.، اکبری، مرتضی.، پاداش، حمید.، 1395. شناسایی و اولویت‌بندی عوامل مؤثر بر موفقیت نوآوری بار در شرکت‌های فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات (ICT). فصلنامه توسعه کارآفرینی. (9).
  • ·         رنجبر، هادی.،  حق دوست، علی اکبر صلصالی، مهوش خوشدل، علیرضا سلیمانی، محمدعلیبهرامی، نسیم. 1391. نمونه‌گیری در پژوهش‌های کیفی: راهنمای برای شروع. سالنامه پژوهش علوم سلامت و نظامی. 10 (3).
  • صفائی قادیکلای، عبدالحمید، اکبرزاده، زین‌العابدین، احمدی، احمد.، 1390. ارزیابی مقایسه‌ای استراتژی‌های زنجیره‌ی تأمین ناب، چابک و ناب-چابک. پژوهشنامه مدیریت اجرای.(6).
  • مشایخ، جواد.، طباطبائیان، سید حبیب اله.، امیری، مقصود.، مهرداد شکریه، محمود.، 1395. تأثیر عوامل زمینه‌ای بیرونی بر اتخاذ نوآوری باز با تأکید بر ویژگی‌های بخش: شواهدی از شرکت‌های بخش مواد پیشرفته. فصلنامه علمی-پژوهشی مدیریت نوآوری. (18).
  • نقی زاده، محمد.، سید نقوی، میرعلی.، احسانی، راضیه.، 1392. تأثیر قابلیت‌های پویا بر توانمندی نوآوری محصول در بنگاه‌های بخش دارویی ایران. فصلنامه علمی-پژوهشی مدیریت نوآوری. (11).
  • ولی‌پور خطیر، محمد، اکبرزاده، زین‌العابدین، محمدی نودهکی، زهرا.، 1394. ارزیابی استراتژی‌های تولیدی با استفاده از رویکرد QFD فازی. فصلنامه چشم‌انداز مدیریت صنعتی. (19).


  • Ahuja, G. (2000). Collaboration networks, structural holes, and innovation: A longitudinal study. Administrative science quarterly45(3), 425-455.
  • Altmann, P., & Li, J. (2011). The novelty of open innovation. Available at http://www. diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:471149/FULLTEXT01.
  • Chiesa, V., & Manzini, R. (1998). Organizing for technological collaborations: a managerial perspective. R&D Management28(3), 199-212.
  • Bergek, Anna; Jacobsson, Staffan; Carlsson, Bo; Lindmark, Seven and Rickne, Annika. (2008). Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: A scheme of analysis,Research policy 37(2008) 407429-.
  • Bellantuono, N., Pontrandolfo, P., & Scozzi, B. (2013). Different practices for open innovation: a context-based approach. Journal of Knowledge Management17(4), 558-568.
  • Bianchi, M., Cavaliere, A., Chiaroni, D., Frattini, F., & Chiesa, V. (2011). Organisational modes for Open Innovation in the bio-pharmaceutical industry: An exploratory analysis. Technovation31(1), 22-33.
  • Chesbrough, H. W. (2006). Open innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. Harvard Business Press.
  • Chesbrough, H., & Crowther, A. K. (2006). Beyond high tech: early adopters of open innovation in other industries. R&d Management36(3), 229-236.
  • Chiu, W. Y., Tzeng, G. H., & Li, H. L. (2013). A new hybrid MCDM model combining DANP with VIKOR to improve e-store business. Knowledge-Based Systems, 37, 48-61.
  • Dahlander, L., & Gann, D. M. (2010). How open is innovation?. Research policy39(6), 699-709.
  • Enkel, E., Gassmann, O., & Chesbrough, H. (2009). Open R&D and open innovation: exploring the phenomenon. R&d Management39(4), 311-316.
  • Fritsch, M., & Lukas, R. (2001). Who cooperates on R&D?. Research policy, 30(2), 297-312.
  • Galanakis, C. M. (Ed.). (2016). Innovation Strategies in the Food Industry: Tools for Implementation. Academic Press.
  • Hafkesbrink, J., & Schroll, M. (2010). Organizational Competences for Open Innovation in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises of the Digital Economy. innowise GmbH, Bürgerstr. 15, 47057 Duisburg, Germany.
  • Hoegl, M., Lichtenthaler, U., & Muethel, M. (2011). Is your company ready for open innovation?. MIT Sloan Management Review53(1), 45.
  • Huizingh, E. K. (2011). Open innovation: State of the art and future perspectives. Technovation, 31(1), 2-9.‏
  • Jansen, J., van den Bosch, F., & Volberda, H. (2003). Strategische vernieuwing van ondernemingen: het managen van innovatie en efficiency. Management Executive: grensverleggend voor de ambitieuze manager57(6), 25-36.
  • Knoppen, D., Johnston, D., & Sáenz, M. J. (2015). Supply chain relationships as a context for learning leading to innovation. The International Journal of Logistics Management26(3), 543-567.
  • Knudsen, M. P., & Mortensen, T. B. (2011). Some immediate–but negative–effects of openness on product development performance. Technovation31(1), 54-64.
  • Kolk, A. (2008). Co-development of open innovation strategy and dynamic capabilities as a source of corporate growth (No. 173).
  • Lazzarotti, V., Manzini, R., & Pellegrini, L. (2010). Open innovation models adopted in practice: an extensive study in Italy. Measuring business excellence14(4), 11-23.
  • Lazzarotti, V., & Manzini, R. (2009). Different modes of open innovation: a theoretical framework and an empirical study. International journal of innovation management, 13(04), 615-636.‏
  • Lee, S., Park, G., Yoon, B., & Park, J. (2010). Open innovation in SMEs—An intermediated network model. Research policy39(2), 290-300.
  • Lichtenthaler, U. (2008). Open innovation in practice: an analysis of strategic approaches to technology transactions. IEEE Transactions on engineering management, 55(1), 148-157.
  • Lichtenthaler, U. (2011). Open innovation: Past research, current debates, and future directions. The Academy of Management Perspectives25(1), 75-93.
  • Lichtenthaler, U., & Lichtenthaler, E. (2009). A capability‐based framework for open innovation: Complementing absorptive capacity. Journal of management studies, 46(8), 1315-1338.‏
  • Mortara, L., & Minshall, T. (2011). How do large multinational companies implement open innovation?. Technovation31(10-11), 586-597.
  • Pisano, G. P., & Verganti, R. (2008). Which kind of collaboration is right for you. Harvard business review86(12), 78-86.
  • Russo-Spena, T., & Mele, C. (2012). “Five Co-s” in innovating: a practice-based view. Journal of Service Management23(4), 527-553.
  • Shamah, R. A. E., & Elssawabi, S. M. (2015). Facing the open innovation gap: measuring and building open innovation in supply chains. Journal of Modelling in Management10(1), 50-75.
  • Shih, K. H., Lin, W. R., Wang, Y. H., & Hung, T. E. (2013). Applying DEMATEL-ANP for assessing organizational information system development decisions. Active Citizenship by Management, Knowledge Management & Innovation Knowledge & Learning, 349-365.‏
  • Spithoven, A., Clarysse, B., & Knockaert, M. (2010). Building absorptive capacity to organise inbound open innovation in traditional industries. Technovation30(2), 130-141.
  • Trott, P., & Hartmann, D. A. P. (2009). Why'open innovation'is old wine in new bottles.

             International Journal of Innovation Management, 13(04), 715-736.‏

  • Van de Vrande, V., De Jong, J. P., Vanhaverbeke, W., & De Rochemont, M. (2009). Open innovation in SMEs: Trends, motives and management challenges. Technovation29(6-7), 423-437.
  • Von Hippel, E. (2010). Open user innovation. In Handbook of the Economics of Innovation (Vol. 1, pp. 411-427). North-Holland.
  • Verbano, C., Crema, M., & Venturini, K. (2015). The Identification and Characterization of Open Innovation Profiles in Italian Small and Medium‐sized Enterprises. Journal of Small Business Management53(4), 1052-1075.
  • Virlée, J., Hammedi, W., & Parida, V. (2015). Open Innovation Implementation in the Service Industry: Exploring Practices, Sub-practices and Contextual. Journal of Innovation Management3(2), 106.
  • Zhang, Y., Luo, T., & Yang, Z. (2014). Strategic innovation in the total synthesis of complex natural products using gold catalysis. Natural product reports31(4), 489-503.