A Cause and Effect Analysis of Intellectual Property Management in Knowledge-based Pharmaceutical Firms in Tehran

Document Type : Research Paper


Faculty Member, Department of Industrial Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran.


Intellectual property management, in the form of generation, protection, and timely exploitation of these assets, plays a vital role in the creation of competitive advantage among the knowledge-based pharmaceutical firms. However, considering the undeniable effects of IP management on the business of these companies, it is not clear to what extent the managers of these firms are aware of the constituents of IP management and the impact of these factors in their process. Therefore the aim of this paper is to identify and review the activities affecting IP management in knowledge-based pharmaceutical firms. For this purpose, the data was gathered using the survey method and through a questionnaire and then analyzed with the DEMATEL technique. The findings identified 2 factors (IP creation and commercialization) as the affecting factors and 3 other factors (IP acquisition, protection, and enforcement) as the affected factors in IP management in knowledge-based pharmaceutical firms. Also, IP commercialization and protection are the most important factors, respectively. Thus, the managers of knowledge-based pharmaceutical firms should pay special attention to these two activities in the process of managing IPs in the organization.


Main Subjects

-          Aminlou, M., & Yaghoubi, Y. (2019). The policies of intellectual property system for innovation development [In Persian]. Journal of Science & Technology Policy11(2), 269-284. http://jstp.nrisp.ac.ir/article_13698.html
-          Bakhtiari, M.R. (2011). Principles of intellectual property and patent protection [In Persian]. Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology.
-          Cockburn, I. M. (2009). Intellectual property rights and pharmaceuticals: challenges and opportunities for economic research. In The economics of intellectual propertySuggestions for further research in developing countries and countries with economies in transition (pp. 150-180). World Intellectual Property Organization. https://www.wipo.int/ip-development/en/economics/pdf/wo_1012_e.pdf
-          De Leon, I., Donoso, J. F., & de León, I. (2017). Innovation, startups and intellectual property management: Strategies and evidence from Latin America and other regions. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54906-4 
-          Dijkman, L.(2020).Reflections on IP exclusivity in the wake of the Corona virus outbreak, Retrived from http://ipkitten.blogspot.com/2020/03/reflections-on-ip-exclusivity-in-wake.html
-          Fisher III, W. W., & Oberholzer-Gee, F. (2013). Strategic management of intellectual property: An integrated approach. California Management Review55(4), 157-183. https://doi.org/10.1525/cmr.2013.55.4.157
-          Frazier, K. C. (2015). Biopharmaceutical research & development: The process behind new medicines. http://phrma-docs.phrma.org/sites/default/files/pdf/rd_brochure_022307.pdf
-          Gargate, G., & Momaya, K. (2018). Intellectual property management system: Develop and self-assess. World Patent Information,  52, 29–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wpi.2018.01.005.
-          Goodarzi, M. & Esmaeeli, E. (2013). Management of intellectual property in Iranian state research institutes: A few Items study [In Persian]. Rahyaft23(2), 33-51. http://rahyaft.nrisp.ac.ir/article_13544.html
-          Goodarzi, M. (2003). Investigating the status-quo of Iran's intellectual property system and providing solutions for improvement toward development [Unpublished master's thesis, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran, In Persian].
-          Holgersson, M. & Aaboen, L.(2019). A literature review of intellectual property management in technology transfer offices: From appropriation to utilization. Technology in Society, 59, 101132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2019.04.008
-          Islamic Parliament of Iran. (2007). Patent, Industrial Designs and Trademarks Law [In Persian]. http://iripo.ssaa.ir/index.jsp?fkeyid=&siteid=4&pageid=373&p=1&g=37&showitem=8
-          Jolly, A., & Philpott, J. (2009). The handbook of European intellectual property management: Developing, managing and protecting your company's intellectual property. Kogan Page.
-          Lawshe, CH. (1975) A qualitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology28(4), 563-75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x 
-          Lewis-Lettington, R., & Grace, C. (2004). The effect of changing intellectual property on pharmaceutical industry prospects in India and China considerations for access to medicines. DFID Health Systems Resource Centre https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08cd6ed915d3cfd00164c/The-effect-of-changing-Intellectual-property-in-India-and-China.pdf
-          Lexchin, J., Bero, L., Djulbegovic, B. & Clark, O. (2003). Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. Bmj326(7400), 1167-1170. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7400.1167 
-          Liu, T. W. (2009). An audit model for intellectual property management excellence [Doctoral dissertation, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong]. Retrieved from  http://lbms03.cityu.edu.hk/theses/c_ftt/engd-meem-b23750923f.pdf
-          Makati Business Club (2017). Exploitation of Intellectual Property Rights by Pharmaceutical Companies in the Philippineshttps://mbc.com.ph/wp-content/uploads/IDAR-PHARMA-RR.pdf
-          McGuire, J. L., Hasskarl, H., Bode, G., Klingmann, I. & Zahn, M. (2007). Pharmaceuticals, general survey. In Ullmann’s encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
-          Sullivan, P. H. (2000). Value driven intellectual capital: how to convert intangible corporate assets into market value. Wiley.
-          Sullivan, T. (2019, March 21).  A tough road: Cost to develop one new drug is $2.6 billion; approval rate for drugs entering clinical development is less than 12%.Policy & Medicinehttps://www.policymed.com/2014/12/a-tough-road-cost-to-develop-one-new-drug-is-26-billion-approval-rate-for-drugs-entering-clinical-de.html
-          Swanson, A. (2015, February 11). Big pharmaceutical firms are spending far more on marketing than research. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/02/11/big-pharmaceutical-companies-are-spending-far-more-on-marketing-than-research/
-          WIPO. (2006). Intellectual Property Audit Toolhttps://www.wipo.int/publications/en/details.jsp?id=292&plang=EN
-          Work group for the evaluation and recognition of the qualifications of knowledge-based enterprises and institutions. (2019). Approved knowledge-based enterprises and institutions [Data set, In Persian]. https://pub.daneshbonyan.ir