تصاحب ارزش در اتحادهای استراتژیک فناورانه و عوامل موثر بر ابعاد مختلف آن (مورد مطالعه: صنعت خودرو)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیئت علمی گروه آموزشی مدیریت صنعتی/ دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه تهران

2 عضو هیئت علمی گروه مدیریت صنعتی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

3 عضو هیات علمی گروه آموزشی مدیریت صنعتی/ دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه تهران

4 هیئت علمی گروه آموزشی مدیریت صنعتی دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

5 دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

امروزه باتوجه به پیچیدگی و عدم‌قطعیت بالا در محیط کسب‌وکار، نیاز به پیوستن به اتحادهای استراتژیک علی-الخصوص در جهت توسعه فنی و فناوری یا انتقال تکنولوژی، به‌عنوان منبع نوآوری و کسب مزیت‌رقابتی بیش از گذشته احساس می‌شود. اما مطالعات متعدد نرخ بالای شکست در این نوع اتحادها را نشان می‌دهد. اتحاد زمانی موفق است که هم بنگاه‌های مشارکت‌کننده، به‌طور مشترک ارزشی را خلق نمایند و هم هرکدام از طرفین سهم خود از اتحاد را تصاحب کند. اما چالش اصلی درهنگام تصاحب ارزش به‌وجود می‌آید. در این مقاله "تصاحب ارزش در اتحادهای استراتژیک فناورانه" به‌عنوان یکی از عوامل مهمِ تاثیرگذار بر موفقیت یا عدم‌موفقیت این نوع اتحادها مورد بررسی قرارگرفته و به‌عنوان "مجموع ارزش اختصاصی بنگاه از اتحاد به‌علاوه سهم بنگاه از ارزش مشترک خلق‌شده" تعریف شده است. پس از مرور ادبیات و شناسایی عوامل موثر بر ابعاد ارزش تصاحب‌شده، به بررسی میزان اهمیت هریک از این عوامل با روش بهترین-بدترین فازی در صنعت خودروسازی کشور پرداخته شده است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که ظرفیت جذب، قدرت چانه‌زنی و تجربه عمومی قبلی بنگاه بااهمیت‌ترین عوامل اثرگذار بر تصاحب ارزش در اتحادهای استراتژیک فناورانه است و بنگاه‌ها باید برای کسب ارزش بیشتر از یک اتحاد بر این عوامل تمرکز داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Value Capturing in Technological Strategic Alliances and Factors Affecting Its Various Dimensions: A Case Study of the Automotive Industry

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Jafarnejad 1
  • Laya Olfat 2
  • Nima MOkhtarzadeh 3
  • Mehdi Elyasi 4
  • Saiedeh Sadat Ahangari 5
1 Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Industrial Management , Faculty of management and according, Allameh Tabatabai university, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Industrial Management , Faculty of management and according, Allameh Tabatabai university, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, due to the complexity and uncertainty in the business environment, joining strategic alliances, as a source of innovation and gaining competitive advantage, especially for the technical and technological development or technology transfer is required more than ever.  Several studies show the high rate of failure in these types of alliances. The alliance is successful at the same time as the joint ventures create a common value, and each party acquires its share of the alliance. But the main challenge comes from the value acquisition. In this paper, "the value takeover in the technological strategic alliances" has been investigated as one of the important factors influencing the success or failure of this type of alliances and is defined as "the total firm value of the union, plus the share of the firm of the joint value created." After reviewing the literature and identifying the factors affecting the dimensions of value capturing, the importance of each of these factors was examined using fuzzy best-worst method (FBWM) in the automotive industry. The results indicate that absorptive capacity, bargaining power and previous general experience of the firm are the most important factors affecting value capturing in the technological strategic alliances, and firms must focus on these factors in order to gain value from an alliance. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Technological Strategic Alliances
  • Common Value Creation
  • Value Capturing
  • Fuzzy BWM
صمدی، ‌ع.، سهرابی، ‌ر.، سلیمان‌آبادی، ‌م و سلیمان‌شرفی، ‌م. (1392). ارزیابی شکل‌گیری اتحاد استراتژیک در یک خوشه صنعتی. مدیریت زنجیره تأمین, (41), 50–59

Adegbesan, J. A., & Higgins, M. J. (2010). The intra-alliance division of value created through collaboration. Strategic Management Journal, 32, 187-211.

Ahuja, G. (2000). Collaboration networks, structural holes, and innovation: A longitudinal study. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 425–455.

Anand, B. N., & Khanna, T. (2000). Do firms learn to create value? The case of alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 295–315

Argyres, N., & Mayer, K. I. (2007). Contract design as a firm capability: An integration of learning and transaction cost perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1060–1077.

Capaldo, A. (2007). Network structure and innovation: The leveraging of a dual network as a distinctive relational capability. Strategic Management Journal, 28(6), 585–608.

Chan, S. H., Kensinger, J. W., Keown, A. J., & Martin, J. D. (1997). Do strategic alliances create value? Journal of Financial Economics, 46(2), 199–221.

Chang, S. C., Chen, S. S., & Lai, J. H. (2008). The effect of alliance experience and intellectual capital on the value creation of international strategic alliances. Omega, 36(2), 298–316.

Contractor, F. J., & Woodley, J. A. (2015). How the alliance pie is split: Value appropriation by each partner in cross-border technology transfer alliances. Journal of World Business, 50(3), 535–547.

Das, T. K., & Teng, B. S. (2001). Trust, control, and risk in strategic alliances: An integrated framework. Organization Studies, 22(2), 251–283.

Das, & Teng, B.-S. (2002). The Dynamics of Alliance Conditions in the Alliance Development Process. Journal of Management Studies, 39(5), 725–746.

Rond, M.D., & Bouchikhi, H. (2004). On the Dialectics of Strategic Alliances. Organization Science, 15(1), 56-69.

Delaney, J. T., & Huselid, M.A. (1996). The impact of human resource management on perceptions of organizational performance. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 949–969.

Dyer, J. H., Singh, H., & Kale, P. (2008). Splitting the Pie: Rent Distribution in Alliances and Networks. Managerial and Decision Economics, 29, 137–148.

Dyer, J. H., & Hatch, N. W. (2006). Relation-specific capabilities and barriers to knowledge transfers: Creating advantage through network relationships. Strategic Management Journal, 27(8), 701–719.

Fonti, F., Maoret, M., & Whitbred, R. (2017). Free-riding in multi-party alliances: The role of perceived alliance effectiveness and peers' collaboration in a research consortium. Strategic Management Journal, 38(2), 363-383.

Garcia Martinez, M., Zouaghi, F., & Sanchez Garcia, M. (2017). Capturing value from alliance portfolio diversity: The mediating role of R&D human capital in high and low tech industries. Technovation, 59, 55–67.

George, G., Zahra, S. A., Wheatley, K. K., & Khan, R. (2001). The effects of alliance portfolio characteristics and absorptive capacity on performance: A study of biotechnology firms. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 12(2), 205–226.

Gil-saura, I., Frasquet-deltoro, M., & Cervera-taulet, A. (2009). The value of B2B relationships. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 109(5), 593–609.

Gulati, R. (1998). Alliances and Networks. Strategic Management Journal, 19, 293–317.

Gulati, R. (1999). Network location and learning: The influence of network resources and firm capabilities on alliance formation. Strategic Management Journal, 20(5), 397–420.

Guo, S., & Zhao, H. (2017). Fuzzy best-worst multi-criteria decision-making method and its applications. Knowledge-Based Systems, 121, 23–31.

Hagedoorn, J. (2002). Inter-firm R&D partnerships: An overview of major trends and patterns since 1960. Research Policy, 31(4), 477–492.

Hagedoorn, J., & Schakenraad, J. (1994). The effect of strategic technology alliances on company performance. Strategic Management Journal, 15(4), 291–309.

Hamel, G. (1991). Competition for competence and inter-partner learning within international strategic alliance. Strategic Management Journal, 12(12), 83–103.

Heimeriks, K. H., & Duysters, G. (2007). Alliance capability as a mediator between experience and alliance performance: An empirical investigation into the alliance capability development process. Journal of Management Studies, 44(1), 25–49.

Hitt, M. a, Ireland, R. D., & Lee, H. (2000). Technological learning, knowledge management, firm growth and performance: An introductory essay. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 17(3–4), 231–246.

Hoang, H., & Rothaermel, F. T. (2005). The effect of general and partner-specific alliance experience on joint R&D project performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48(2), 332–345.

Hoang, H., & Yi, A. (2015). Network-based research in entrepreneurship: A decade in review. Foundations and Trends® in Entrepreneurship, 11(1), 1–54.

Ireland, R. D., Hitt, M., & Vaidyanath, D. (2002). Alliance management as a source of competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 28(3), 413–446.

Jacobides, M. G., Knudsen, T., & Augier, M. (2006). Benefiting from innovation: Value creation, value appropriation and the role of industry architectures. Research Policy, 35, 1200–1221.

Jiang, X., Li, Y., & Gao, S. (2008). The stability of strategic alliances: Characteristics, factors and stages. Journal of International Management, 14, 173–189.

Kale, P., Dyer, J. H., & Singh, H. (2002). Alliance capability, stock market response, and long-term alliance success: The role of the alliance function. Strategic Management Journal, 23(8), 747–767.

Kale, P., Dyer, J., & Singh, H. (2001). Value creation and success in strategic alliances: European Management Journal, 19(5), 463–471.

Kale, P., & Singh, H. (2007). Building firm capabilities through learning: The role of the alliance learning process in alliance capability and firm-level alliance success. Strategic Management Journal, 28, 981–1000.

Kale, P., Singh, H., & Perlmutter, H. (2000). Learning and protection of proprietary assets in inter-firm alliances: Building relational capital. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 217–237.

Kang, J. (2013). Value creation and appropriation in strategic alliances: Roles of resource characteristics and structural position in alliance network. Business and Management Review, 3(2), 1–9.

Kohli, R., & Grover, V. (2008). Business value of IT : An essay on expanding research directions to keep up with the times. Journal of the Association for Information Systems Business, 9(1), 23–39.

Kohtamäki, M., Rabetino, R., & Möller, K. (2017). Alliance capabilities: A review and research agenda. Industrial Marketing Management, 68, 188-201.

Kumar, M. V. S. (2010). Differential gains between partners in Joint Ventures: Role of resource appropriation and private benefits. Organization Science, 21(1), 232–248.

Kuznetsova, N. V. (2016). Strategic Alliances : Industry-specific characteristics of the achievement of a competitive advantage. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 6(1), 109–117.

Lavie, D. (2007). Alliance portfolios and firm performance: A study of value creation and appropriation in the U.S. software industry. Strategic Management Journal, 28, 1187–1212.

Lavie, D. (2009). Capturing value from alliance portfolios. Organizational Dynamics, 38(1), 26–36.

Lavie, D., & Rosenkopf, L. (2006). Balancing exploration and exploitation in alliance formation. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4), 797–818.

Lee, C. W. (2007). Strategic alliances influence on small and medium firm performance. Journal of Business Research, 60(7), 731–741.

Lepak, D. P., Smith, K. E. N. G., & Taylor, M. S. (2007). Value creation and value capture: A Multilevel perspective. Academy of Management Review, 32(1), 180–194.

Luo, X., Rindfleisch, A., & Tse, D. K. (2007). Working with rivals: The impact of competitor alliances on financial performance. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(1), 73–83.

Madhok, A., Keyhani, M., & Bossink, B. (2015). Understanding alliance evolution and termination: Adjustment costs and the economics of resource value. Strategic Organization, 13(2), 91–116.

Mohr, J., & Spekman, R. (1994). Characteristics of partnership success: partnership attributes, communication behavior, and conflict resolution techniques. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 135–152.

Nielsen, B. B. (2007). Determining international strategic alliance performance: A multidimensional approach. International Business Review, 16(3), 337–361.

Nieto, M. J., & Santamaría, L. (2007). The importance of diverse collaborative networks for the novelty of product innovation. Technovation, 27(6–7), 367–377.

Norman, P. M. (2004). Knowledge acquisition , knowledge loss , and satisfaction in high technology alliances. Journal of Business Research, 57, 610–619.

Ozman, M. (2009). Inter-firm networks and innovation : A survey of literature. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 18(1), 39–67.

Rahman, N., & Korn, H. J. (2014). Alliance longevity: Examining relational and operational antecedents. Long Range Planning, 47(5), 245–261.

Rai, R. K. (2013). A co-opetition-based approach to value creation in interfirm alliances: Construction of a measure and examination of its psychometric properties. Journal of Management, 42(6), 1663-1699.

Rezaei, J. (2015). Best-worst multi-criteria decision-making method. Omega, 53, 49–57.

Ritala, P., Agouridas, V., Assimakopoulos, D., & Gies, O. (2013). Value creation and capture mechanisms in innovation ecosystems: A comparative case study. International Journal of Technology Management, 63(3-4), 244–267.

Ritala, P., Hallikas, J., & Sissonen, H. (2008). The effect of inter-firm alliances between key competitors on firm performance. Management Research, 6, 179–187.

Ritala, P., & Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, P. (2009). What’s in it for me? Creating and appropriating value in innovation-related coopetition. Technovation, 29(12), 819–828.

Rothaermel, F. T., & Deeds, D. L. (2006). Alliance type , alliance experience and alliance management capability in high-technology ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 21, 429–460.

Sarkar, M. ., Aulakh,  preet s, & Madhok, A. (2009). Process capabilities and value generation in alliance portfolios. Organization Science, 20(3), 583–600.

Sarker, S., Sarker, S., Sahaym, A., & Bjørn-Andersen, N. (2012). Exploring value cocreation in relationships between an ERP vendor and its partners: A revelatory case study. MIS Quarterly, 36(1), 317–338.

Simonin, B. L. (1997). The importance of collaborative know-how: An empirical test of the learning organization. Academy of Management Journal, 40(5), 1150–1174.

Swaminathan, V., & Moorman, C. (2009). Marketing alliances, firm networks, and firm value creation. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 52–69.

Teece, D. J. (1986). Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy. Research Policy, 15(6), 285–305.

Tsai, K. H., & Wang, J. C. (2009). External technology sourcing and innovation performance in LMT sectors: An analysis based on the Taiwanese Technological Innovation Survey. Research Policy, 38(3), 518–526.

Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 464–476.

Wagner, S. M., Eggert, A., & Lindemann, E. (2010). Creating and appropriating value in collaborative relationships. Journal of Business Research, 63(8), 840–848.

Walter, S. G., Walter, A., & Müller, D. (2015). Formalization, communication quality, and opportunistic behavior in R&D alliances between competitors. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(6), 954–970.

Wang, Y., & Rajagopalan, N. (2015). Alliance capabilities : Review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 41(1), 236–260.

Weck, M. (2006). Knowledge creation and exploitation in collaborative R&D projects: Lessons learned on success factors. Knowledge and Process Management, 13(4), 252–263.

Wu, F., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2006). Organizational learning, commitment, and joint value creation in interfirm relationships. Journal of Business Research, 59(1), 81–89.

Wu, J. (2014). Cooperation with competitors and product innovation: Moderating effects of technological capability and alliances with universities. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(2), 199–209.

Zollo, M., Reuer, J. J., & Singh, H. (2002). Interorganizational routines and performance in strategic alliances. Organization Science, 13(6), 701–713.