شناسایی و تحلیل ابعاد توسعه کارآفرینی دیجیتال و ارائه مدلی برای آن در شرکت‌های دانش بنیان کوچک و متوسط

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت صنعتی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران.

2 عضو هیئت علمی، گروه مدیریت صنعتی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران.

چکیده

کارآفرینی دیجیتال، شیوه جدید کسب‌وکار است که زمینه را برای توسعه اقتصادی در کشورهای درحال‌توسعه فراهم می‌کند و به ­فراخور شیوع کووید-19 نیز ضرورت توسعه آن تسریع شده است. از­سوی­ دیگر توسعه کسب‌و‌کارهای کارآفرینانه دیجیتالی در ایران نسبتاً کند است و تاکنون پژوهشی به‌صورت جامع، ابعاد توسعه این نوع کسب‌وکارها را بررسی نکرده است. براین‌اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی و تحلیل ابعاد توسعه کارآفرینی دیجیتال در شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان کوچک و متوسط و ارائه مدلی برای آن می‌باشد. در این پژوهش با­مطالعه پیشینه موضوع و مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختاریافته، ابتدا 147 کُد مربوط به توسعه کارآفرینی دیجیتال شناسایی شده است و سپس با­تکیه‌بر روش ‌کیفی تحلیل مضمون، کُدها در قالب 29 مضمون پایه و 7 مضمون سازمان‌دهنده طبقه‌بندی شده‌اند. در­ادامه با­ به‌کارگیری مدل‌سازی ساختاری تفسیری، مضامین مدل‌سازی شده‌اند و درنتیجه مدل نهایی در سه سطح زمینه‌ای، ساختاری و محتوایی قرار گرفته‌اند. درنهایت نیز مدل پیشنهادی با ­روش تحلیل عاملی تأییدی در مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری تائید شده‌ است. براساس یافته‌های پژوهش، از میان 7 عامل اثربخش در توسعه کارآفرینی دیجیتال، عوامل بُعد ساختاری و عوامل بُعد زمینه‌ای به ­ترتیب بیشترین تأثیرپذیری و تأثیرگذاری را داشته‌اند و درنتیجه از نقشی کلیدی در توسعه کارآفرینی دیجیتال در شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان کوچک و متوسط برخوردار می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification and analysis of the dimensions of digital entrepreneurship development and provision of its model for knowledge-based SMEs

نویسندگان [English]

  • Melika Fard 1
  • Mohammad Reza Kabaranzad Ghadim 2
  • Jalal Haghighat Monfared 2
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Industrial Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Faculty Member, Department of Industrial Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Digital entrepreneurship is a new way of doing business that paves the way for economic development in developing countries, and the need for its development has accelerated in line with the prevalence of Covid-19. On the other hand, the development of digital entrepreneurial businesses in Iran is relatively slow and so far a comprehensive study has not examined the dimensions of the development of such businesses. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the dimensions of digital entrepreneurship development in small and medium-sized knowledge-based firms and develop a model for it. In this research, first, by literature review and semi-structured interviews, 147 codes related to digital entrepreneurship development have been identified. Then the codes have been classified into 29 basic themes and 7 organizing themes through qualitative content analysis and the themes are classified into three levels (contextual, structural, and content) using interpretive structural modeling. Finally, the proposed model has been confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis in structural equation modeling. According to the research findings, among the 7 effective factors in the development of digital entrepreneurship, structural and contextual factors are the most influential and impressionable factors, respectively, and therefore have a key role in the development of digital entrepreneurship in small and medium-sized knowledge-based firms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Digital entrepreneurship
  • Information and Communication Technology
  • thematic analysis
  • Interpretive Structural Modeling
  • Electronic Business
Ahmadi Jashuqani, A., & Ismailian, G. (2015). Assess and prioritize strategie formulation factors affecting small and medium enterprise to improve knowledge base by using ANP (Case study: Isfahan science and technology town) [In Persian]. Modiriat-e-Farda, 14(2), 120-113. http://www.modiriyatfarda.ir/En-Article/139412042339461188
Akbari, M., Hooshmand Chaijani, M., & Besharti, F. (2014). Identifying and ranking the factors affecting digital entrepreneurship among students using .AHP methodology [In Persian]. The First National Conference on IT Management Challenges in Organizations and Industries, Tehran, Iran.  https://civilica.com/doc/372269
Amit, R., & Han, X. (2017). Value creation through novel resource configurations in a digitally enabled world. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 11(3), 228-242. https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.1256
Danaeifard, H., Alvani, M., & Azar, A. (2011). Quantitive research methodology in management - A comprehensive approach [In Persian]. Saffar Publications.
Danaeifard, H., Alvani, M., & Azar, A. (2017). Qualitative research methodology in management - A comprehensive approach [In Persian]. Saffar Publications.
Daneshfard, K. (2016). The role of basic and protective knowledge-based structures in innovation process in knowledge-based comp. Journal of Innovation and Creativity in Human Science, 5(4), 217-248. http://journal.bpj.ir/article_523889.html?lang=en
Davari, A. (2010). Adequate model of entrepreneurship development by the Iranian government [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Allameh Tabatabaei University.
Du, W., Pan, S. L., Zhou, N., & Ouyang, T. (2018). From a marketplace of electronics to a digital entrepreneurial ecosystem (DEE): The emergence of a meta‐organization in Zhongguancun, China. Information Systems Journal28(6), 1158-1175. https://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12176
Elia, G., Margherita, A., & Passiante, G. (2020). Digital entrepreneurship ecosystem: How digital technologies and collective intelligence are reshaping the entrepreneurial process. Technological Forecasting and Social Change150, 119791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119791
Esmaeeli, H. (2011). The study of effecting factors on digital entrepreneurship (a case study). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business2(12), 163-172.
Ghlichlee, B., & Makani, A. (2015). The entrepreneurial competencies, innovation and performance of knowledge-base enterprises [In Persian]. Journal of Strategic Management Studies, 7(3), 106-89. http://www.smsjournal.ir/article_88434.html?lang=en
Giones, F., & Brem, A. (2017). Digital technology entrepreneurship: A definition and research agenda. Technology Innovation Management Review7(5), 44-51. https://doi.org/10.22215/timreview1076
Gwet, K. L. (2014). Handbook of inter-rater reliability: The definitive guide to measuring the extent of agreement among raters. Advanced Analytics, LLC.
Hooman, H.A. (2001). Analysis of multivariate data in behavioral research [In Persian]. Peyk Farhang.
Hsieh, Y.J., & Wu, Y. (2018). Entrepreneurship through the platform strategythe digital era: Insights and research opportunities. Computers in Human Behavior, 95, 315-323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.03.033
Islamic Parliament Research Center of the Islamic Republic of Iran. (2015). Financing model of small and medium enterprises - analytical on the concept and importance of financing of small and medium enterprises [In Persian]. Islamic Parliament Research Center of the Islamic Republic of Iran. https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/report/show/934616
Kamalian, A., Yaghoubi, N., Moloudi, J. (2016). Providing functional model for developing digital entrepreneurship. International Journal of Business and Development Studies, 8(1), 97-116.
Keshavarz, S., Taqhva, M. R., & Kord, H. (2019). Recognition of the success of digital entrepreneurship with the meta- synthesis approach [In Persian]. Journal of Technology Development Management, 7(3), 149-172. https://doi.org/10.22104/jtdm.2020.3367.2161
Khayatian, M., Tabatabayan, H., Amiri, M., & Eliassy, M. (2014). An analysis of the factors affecting the growth and sustainability of knowledge-based companies in Iran [In Persian]. Journal of Innovation and Value Creation, 3(6), 57-74. https://journalie.ir/fa/Article/345
Kraus, S., Brem, A., Schuessler, M., Schuessler, F., & Niemand, T. (2017). Innovative born globals: investigating the influence of their business models on international performance. International Journal of Innovation Management, 21(1), 1750005. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1363919617500050
Kuester, S., Konya-Baumbach, E. and Schuhmacher, M. C. (2018).Get the show on the road: Go-to-market strategies for e-innovations of start-ups. Journal of Business Research, 83, 65-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.09.037
Le Dinh, T., Vu, M. C., & Ayayi, A. (2018). Towards a living lab for promoting the digital entrepreneurship process. International Journal of Entrepreneurship22(1), 1-17. https://www.proquest.com/docview/2046108774?pq-origsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true
Mirshamsi, F., Kord, B., Kamalian, A. R., & Yaghoobi, N. M. (2011). Identification and prioritization of factors affecting digital entrepreneurship development (case study at Mashhad city-Iran). European Journal of Social Sciences, 26(3), 370-388.
Mirzaei Ahranjani, H. & Sarlak, M. (2005). A look at organizational epistemology: Evolution, schools and managerial applications. Peyk Noor Quarterly, 3(3), 69-78.
Ngoasong, M. Z. (2018). Digital entrepreneurship in a resource-scarce context: A focus on entrepreneurial digital competencies. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 25(3), 483-500.https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-01-2017-0014
Nylén, D., & Holmström, J. (2015). Digital innovation strategy: A framework for diagnosing and improving digital product and service innovation. Business Horizons58(1), 57-67.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2014.09.001
Ojala, A. (2016). Business models and opportunity creation: How IT entrepreneurs create and develop business models under uncertainty. Information Systems Journal26(5), 451-476. http://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12078
Pakniyat, M., Ansari, R., Shahin, A. (2016). Analyzing the impact of technological innovation capabilities on technology commercialization and performance knowledge-based companies in Isfahan [In Persian]. Innovation Management Journal, 5(3), 59-84.http://www.nowavari.ir/article_44425.html
Ratten, V. (2018). Social entrepreneurship through digital communication in farming. World     Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development. 14(1), 99-110. https://doi.org/10.1108/WJEMSD-07-2017-0045
Rezvani, M, Khodadad Hosseini, S. H, Azar, A & Ahmadi, P. (2009). Conceptualization of "International Entrepreneurial Marketing" in Iranian Entrepreneurial Enterprises; Food Industry Department. [In Persian]. Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 2(3), 31-53. https://jed.ut.ac.ir/article_22875.html
Richter, C., Kraus, S., Brem, A., Durst, S. & Giselbrecht, C. (2017). Digital entrepreneurship: innovative business models for the sharing economy. Creativity and Inovation Management, 26(3), 300-310. https://doi.org/10.1111/caim.12227
Sakhteh, S., & Karimi, A. (2018). Factors influence on open innovation in digital entrepreneurship [In Persian]. Journal of Entrepreneurship Development. 11(4), 719-737. https://doi.org/10.22059/jed.2019.268571.652771
Sarmad, Z., Hejazi, E., & Bazargan, A. (2010). Research methods in behavioral sciences [In Persian].Agah Publications.
Satalkina, L., & Steiner, G. (2020). Digital entrepreneurship and its role in innovation systems: A systematic literature review as a basis for future research avenues for sustainable transitions. Sustainability12(7), 2764. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072764
Schrage, M. (2020, Jul 29). Data, not digitalization, transforms the post- pandemic supply chain. MIT Sloan Management Review. https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/data-not-digitalization-transforms-the-post-pandemic-supply-chain/
Srinivasan, A. and Venkatraman, N. (2018). Entrepreneurshipdigital platforms: a network centric view. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 12(3), 54-71. https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.1272
Steininger, D. M. (2019). Linking information systems and entrepreneurship: A review and agenda for IT‐associated and digital entrepreneurship research. Information Systems Journal29(2), 363-407. http://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12206
Sussan, F., & Acs, Z. J. (2017). The digital entrepreneurial ecosystem. Small Business Economics, 49(1), 55-73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-017-9867-5
Troxler, P., & Wolf, P. (2017). Digital maker-entrepreneurs in open design: What activities make up their business model?. Business Horizons60(6), 807-817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2017.07.006
Tumbas, S., Berente, N., & Brocke, J. V. (2018). Digital innovation and institutional entrepreneurship: Chief digital officer perspectives of their emerging role. Journal of Information Technology, 33(3), 188–202. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41265-018-0055-0
Yablonsky, S. (2018). A multidimensional framework for digital platform innovation and management: From business to technological platforms. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 35, 485– 501. https://doi.org/10.1002/sres.2544.
Yaqubi, N, Kamalian, A, & Mirparsa, S. (2013). Study, explanation and prioritization of factors affecting the development of digital entrepreneurship [In Persian]. 2nd International Conference on Management, Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Tehran, Iran. https://civilica.com/doc/286595
Zott, C., & Amit, R. (2017). Business model innovation: How to create value in a digital world. NIM Marketing Intelligence Review, 9(1